Table 3

Mortality Outcomes at 30 Days

OutcomeLength of Stay (Days)Deaths/PatientsAdjusted Rate/100 Persons (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
All-cause mortality1–2323/9,9383.40 (3.03–3.77)0.96 (0.83–1.11)
3–4424/15,2882.81 (2.52–3.10)0.79 (0.68–0.91)
5–6441/12,4393.52 (3.20–3.85)Referent
7–8344/8,7863.93 (3.54–4.32)1.12 (0.97–1.29)
9–14551/11,7794.46 (4.13–4.78)1.28 (1.14–1.43)
Cardiovascular mortality1–2198/9,9382.09 (1.79–2.38)0.91 (0.76–1.09)
3–4270/15,2881.76 (1.53–1.99)0.77 (0.65–0.91)
5–6282/12,4392.27 (2.01–2.52)Referent
7–8208/8,7862.40 (2.09–2.71)1.06 (0.89–1.27)
9–14340/11,7792.77 (2.51–3.03)1.23 (1.06–1.44)
Noncardiovascular mortality1–2125/9,9381.31 (1.08–1.54)1.03 (0.81–1.32)
3–4154/15,2881.05 (0.87–1.24)0.82 (0.64–1.06)
5–6159/12,4391.26 (1.06–1.46)Referent
7–8136/8,7861.53 (1.29–1.77)1.22 (0.99–1.51)
9–14211/11,7791.69 (1.49–1.89)1.35 (1.09–1.67)

Values are n/N.

CI = confidence interval; HR = hazard ratio.

  • Models adjusted for the following covariates: age, sex, socioeconomic status, heart failure history (no history, heart failure with no previous hospitalizations, 1 previous heart failure hospitalization, and ≥2 previous heart failure hospitalizations), myocardial infarction, angina, unstable angina, chronic atherosclerosis, coronary revascularization (coronary artery bypass grafting vs. percutaneous coronary intervention), implantable cardiac defibrillator, permanent pacemaker, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, valvular and rheumatic heart disease, arrhythmias, cardiopulmonary-respiratory failure and shock, diabetes, cancer, pneumonia, trauma, major psychiatric disorders, decubitus skin ulcers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatologic disease, renal disease, gastrointestinal disorders, year and day of admission, hospital type (community, urban, teaching), admission to hospital ward or intensive or coronary care unit, and previous use of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, digoxin, furosemide, metolazone, spironolactone, antiplatelet agents, warfarin, or 5-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors.

  • p < 0.001.