Table 1

Cohort Characteristics

All Patients (N = 58,230)Length of Stay (Days)p Value
1–2 (n = 9,938)3–4 (n = 15,288)5–6 (n = 12,439)7–8 (n = 8,786)9–14 (n = 11,779)
Demographics
 Male29,046 (49.9)5,353 (53.9)7,865 (51.4)6,130 (49.3)4,178 (47.6)5,520 (46.9)<0.001
 Age, yrs
  65 to <7515,496 (26.6)3,053 (30.7)4,128 (27.0)3,210 (25.8)2,192 (24.9)2,913 (24.7)<0.001
  ≥7542,734 (73.4)6,885 (69.3)11,160 (73.0)9,229 (74.2)6,594 (75.1)8,866 (75.3)
Comorbidities
 HF history
  No history20,583 (35.3%)3,477 (35.0)5,278 (34.5)4,564 (36.7)3,192 (36.3)4,072 (34.6)<0.001
  HF without previous hospitalization20,882 (35.9)3,633 (36.6)5,555 (36.3)4,431 (35.6)3,098 (35.3)4,165 (35.4)
  1 HF hospitalization10,676 (18.3)1,768 (17.8)2,862 (18.7)2,174 (17.5)1,621 (18.4)2,251 (19.1)
  ≥2 HF hospitalizations6,089 (10.5)1,060 (10.7)1,593 (10.4)1,270 (10.2)875 (10.0)1,291 (11.0)
 Myocardial infarction9,024 (15.5)1,683 (16.9)2,495 (16.3)1,931 (15.5)1,269 (14.4)1,646 (14.0)<0.001
 Ischemic heart disease20,619 (35.4)3,764 (37.9)5,644 (36.9)4,319 (34.7)2,931 (33.4)3,961 (33.6)<0.001
 Previous PCI2,947 (5.1)628 (6.3)824 (5.4)601 (4.8)420 (4.8)474 (4.0)<0.001
 Previous CABG2,137 (3.7)453 (4.6)612 (4.0)411 (3.3)276 (3.1)385 (3.3)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter13,903 (23.9)2,358 (23.7)3,677 (24.1)2,899 (23.3)2,086 (23.7)2,883 (24.5)0.285
 Valvular heart disease4,437 (7.6)775 (7.8)1,201 (7.9)931 (7.5)618 (7.0)912 (7.7)0.164
 Ventricular arrhythmias1,363 (2.3)265 (2.7)394 (2.6)265 (2.1)176 (2.0)263 (2.2)0.003
 Cardiorespiratory failure or shock1,716 (2.9)278 (2.8)467 (3.1)342 (2.7)254 (2.9)375 (3.2)0.240
 Chronic atherosclerosis16,665 (28.6)3,089 (31.1)4,534 (29.7)3,471 (27.9)2,375 (27.0)3,196 (27.1)<0.001
 Other unspecified heart disease4,245 (7.3)742 (7.5)1,119 (7.3)871 (7.0)608 (6.9)905 (7.7)0.166
 Diabetes26,408 (45.4)4,343 (43.7)6,880 (45.0)5,690 (45.7)3,976 (45.3)5,519 (46.9)<0.001
 Anemia9,601 (16.5)1,597 (16.1)2,449 (16.0)2,004 (16.1)1,473 (16.8)2,078 (17.6)0.002
 COPD8,480 (14.6)1,325 (13.3)2,143 (14.0)1,841 (14.8)1,323 (15.1)1,848 (15.7)<0.001
 Hypertension50,798 (87.2)8,662 (87.2)13,338 (87.2)10,876 (87.4)7,647 (87.0)10,275 (87.2)0.937
 Cerebrovascular disease3,415 (5.9)589 (5.9)918 (6.0)755 (6.1)483 (5.5)670 (5.7)0.358
 Peripheral vascular disease4,168 (7.2)712 (7.2)1,109 (7.3)862 (6.9)626 (7.1)859 (7.3)0.823
 Cirrhotic liver disease303 (0.5)43 (0.4)75 (0.5)64 (0.5)45 (0.5)76 (0.6)0.257
 Cognitive impairment7,084 (12.2)1,208 (12.2)1,822 (11.9)1,521 (12.2)1,047 (11.9)1,486 (12.6)0.453
 Cancer4,192 (7.2)750 (7.5)1,012 (6.6)968 (7.8)638 (7.3)824 (7.0)0.002
 Long-term dialysis619 (1.1)197 (2.0)153 (1.0)99 (0.8)71 (0.8)99 (0.8)<0.001
 Rheumatic disease677 (1.2)102 (1.0)163 (1.1)147 (1.2)104 (1.2)161 (1.4)0.126
 Peptic ulcer disease284 (0.5)53 (0.5)75 (0.5)54 (0.4)44 (0.5)58 (0.5)0.878
 Pneumonia8,187 (14.1)1,273 (12.8)2,090 (13.7)1,803 (14.5)1,251 (14.2)1,770 (15.0)<0.001
 Chronic kidney disease9,839 (16.9)1,624 (16.3)2,482 (16.2)2,036 (16.4)1,552 (17.7)2,145 (18.2)<0.001
 Fluid or electrolyte disorders5,747 (9.9)947 (9.5)1,452 (9.5)1,196 (9.6)893 (10.2)1,259 (10.7)0.006
 Protein-calorie malnutrition125 (0.2)21 (0.2)28 (0.2)28 (0.2)16 (0.2)32 (0.3)0.558
 Urinary tract disorder5,747 (9.9)901 (9.1)1,428 (9.3)1,191 (9.6)918 (10.4)1,309 (11.1)<0.001
 Decubitus ulcer or skin ulcer1,189 (2.0)181 (1.8)259 (1.7)258 (2.1)189 (2.2)302 (2.6)<0.001
 Other GI disorders16,490 (28.3)2,854 (28.7)4,280 (28.0)3,470 (27.9)2,471 (28.1)3,415 (29.0)0.244
 Trauma3,798 (6.5)528 (5.3)959 (6.3)832 (6.7)617 (7.0)862 (7.3)<0.001
 Depression1,029 (1.8)164 (1.7)238 (1.6)205 (1.6)185 (2.1)237 (2.0)0.004
 Major psychiatric disorder4,931 (8.5)848 (8.5)1,214 (7.9)1,012 (8.1)784 (8.9)1,073 (9.1)0.003
Previous medications
 ACE inhibitor or ARB35,587 (61.1)6,197 (62.4)9,537 (62.4)7,663 (61.6)5,215 (59.4)6,975 (59.2)<0.001
 Beta-adrenoceptor antagonist28,749 (49.4)5,203 (52.4)7,904 (51.7)6,042 (48.6)4,171 (47.5)5,429 (46.1)<0.001
 Digoxin9,654 (16.6)1,587 (16.0)2,565 (16.8)2,024 (16.3)1,460 (16.6)2,018 (17.1)0.160
 Furosemide30,771 (52.8)5,017 (50.5)7,904 (51.7)6,509 (52.3)4,705 (53.6)6,636 (56.3)<0.001
 Metolazone1,397 (2.4)202 (2.0)331 (2.2)293 (2.4)208 (2.4)363 (3.1)<0.001
 Spironolactone5,172 (8.9)832 (8.4)1,347 (8.8)1,040 (8.4)803 (9.1)1,150 (9.8)<0.001
 Antiplatelet agent6,035 (10.4)1,103 (11.1)1,671 (10.9)1,318 (10.6)846 (9.6)1,097 (9.3)<0.001
 Warfarin16,488 (28.3)2,855 (28.7)4,469 (29.2)3,401 (27.3)2,448 (27.9)3,315 (28.1)0.007
 HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor27,323 (46.9)4,840 (48.7)7,360 (48.1)5,823 (46.8)4,006 (45.6)5,294 (44.9)<0.001

Values are n (%).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; CABG = coronary artery bypass graft; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GI = gastrointestinal; HF = heart failure; HMG-CoA = 5-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention.